History of Kerala Legislature
we look back to the history of Indian Legislative set up,
we find several things to feel proud of, as we were the
‘first’ in many a political experiment. Among the Princely
States in the country, it was in the erstwhile state of
Travancore that the first Legislative Council was constituted
in 1888 with six official and two non-official members.
In 1898 it was decided that the number of members might
be raised from eight to 15 of which two fifth should be
non-official members. But the ideal of “election” in its
literal sense was not accepted even in principle. Similar
legislative reforms took place in 1920 and 1922.
the regime of Sri. Chitra Thirunal, who was enthroned in
1932, there were some radical reforms in this field. The
Legislative Council was divided into Sreemoolam Assembly
and Sri Chitra State Council. In protest against the inadequacy
of the Constitutional reforms of 1932, the Nivartana
(abstention) movement was started, as the Ezhavas, the
Christians and the Muslims who constituted 70 per cent of
the population, apprehended that the new reforms, owing
to the provisions for restricted franchise on the basis
of the area of possession of property and other qualifications,
would secure for them only a few number of seats in the
enlarged legislature than the Nayars. They demanded apportioning
of the seats on the basis of population. When the Government
turned a deaf ear to the voice of protest, they organized
a Joint Political Congress and exhorted the voters to abstain
from voting. The Government at last conceded their demands
to a certain extent by introducing communal reservation
in appointments to the public service.
Haripura Session of the Indian National Congress in 1938
had resolved that the party should keep itself aloof from
involvement in the affairs of the princely states. This
paved the way for the formation of the Travancore State
Congress and Cochin State Congress the same year. The peasant
and labour movements of the 1930s were responsible for the
emergence of a let wing in politics which ultimately resulted
in the birth of the Congress Socialist Party. The radical
section of the Nationalist Muslims in Malabar lent full
support to the leftists. And very soon the Kerala Provincial
Congress Committee came to be dominated by them.
1925 at 45 member legislature came into being in Cochin
of which 30 were elected members. The creation of the post
of a minister responsible to the legislature, and entrusting
him with the charge of all the departments related to rural
development was the next step forward in 1930 when a diarchical
form of Government was established. In the 50 member legislative
council, 38 were elected members. The Cochin Congress and
the Cochin State Congress were the main contestants. The
Cochin congress secured 13 seats, the Cochin State Congress
12 and Independents and the Progressive Party 13. The Cochin
Congress and with the support of some independents came
to power on June 17, 1938. Ambattu Sivarama Menon was appointed
Minister for Rural Development. This earned for Cochin
the distinction of being the first state among the princely
states to usher tnaministerial Government. Sivarama
Menon died on August 30 and he was followed by Dr. A.R.
Menon. And with the passage of a non-confidence motion on
February 25, 1942, he was forced to resign. Shri. T.K. Nair
of Cochin congress assumed charge of the ministerial office.
Since the Second World War was on, the Maharaja extended
the term of the Council and as such he could continue in
the office till July 11, 1945.
January 26, 1941 a new political called Cochin Rajya Prajamandalam
was constituted with Sri. V.R. Krishnan Ezhuthachan as its
President. In the elections held in 1945, the Prajamandalam
could win 12 seats out of the total 19 seats, but it did
not claim the ministership. Therefore the Maharaja appointed
Shri Parambi Lonappan, Leader of the Nationalis-Group, the
Minster for Rural Development. Shri Balakrishna Menon also
joined the ministry later. Following the passage of a no-confidence
motion, they had to resign. Though the Prajamandalam was
invited to forma ministry they rejected the officer. Thus
again the political affairs reached a crisis. On August
17, 1946 he Maharaja declared that all portfolios except
law and order and finance would be given to the popular
ministers. Thus a 4 member ministry assumed office on September
9, 1946. Sahodaran Ayyappan, T.K. Nair, Panampilli Govinda
Menon and C.R. Iyyunni were the members of the Cabinet.
Later a 3 member ministry under the leadership of Panampilli
Govinda Menon came to power and then the Home Portfolio
also was handed over to the ministry. When Home Minister,
T.K. Nair used the police force to put down labour struggles
and popular agitations, Panampilli, C.R. Iyyunni and Sahodaran
Ayyappan resigned from the Cabinet. No longer did the Maharaja
dismiss the Council, than he announced that elections with
adult franchise would be held in October 1948. In the elections,
the Prajamandalam secured overwhelming majority and Ikkanda
Warrier was elected leader of the party. Panampilli Govinda
Menon, Sahodaran Ayyappan and C.A. Ouseph were his colleagues
in the cabinet. On July 1, 1949 the integration of Cochin
and Travancore took place. The members of the Cochin legislative
council became M.L.As of Travancore-Cochin legislature.
In the Travancore-Cochin state a nine member ministry was
formed including the four ministers of Cochin, with Shri
T.K. Narayana Pillai as the leader.
end of the Quit India Movement saw Malabar returning to
elections and Constitutional Government. Administratively
Malabar was district of Madras Province at the time of Independence.
The Malabar district had also representation in Madras cabinets.
And among the ministers from Malabar were Shri Kozhipurathu
Madhava Menon, Shri. C.J. Varkey, Shri A. Raghava Menon,
Shri Kongathil Raman Menon (all Congress) and Shri. R.M.
Palat (Justice Party).
Travancore State Congress launched a campaign seeking dismissal
of the Dewan, Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Iyer, on the basis of certain
allegations. But the party was forced to withdraw the charges
on Gandhiji’s intervention. This created a split in Congress.
The members of the Youth League left the State Congress
to form the Communist party.
however, was not destined to have a peaceful transition
to freedom and democracy. In the last week of October 1946,
(October 24 to 27)
the State saw the most violent upheavals, the Punnappra
– Vayalar revolt of the working class, an armed revolt by
the poor with a view to ending the police raj
under the Dewan. Even after the attainment of freedom the
Dewan declared on June11, 1947 that Travancore would remain
an ‘Independent State’ on the lapse of British paramountancy.
When he let loose repression, an unsuccessful attempt on
his life was made on July 25, 1947. And forced by the new
developments he left Travancore on August 19, 1947.
Election After Independence
September 4, 1947 the Maharaja of Travancore issued a declaration
to elect Constituent Assembly in Travancore as a prelude
to the introduction of adult franchise. The first election
was held in February 1948. Out of the total 120 seats, the
Indian National Congress contested 112 and won 97 seats.
The Muslim League secured eight, Tamil Nadu Congress 14
and independent one. Though the Communist Party contested
17 seats and the K.S.P. eight, they could not win a single
seat. On March 20, 1948 the Travancore Constituent Assembly
came into being, the first of its kind formed on the basis
of adult franchise in the country. It started functioning
under the presidentship of late Shri A.J. John. But as per
a declaration of the Raja on March 24, it began to function
also a Legislative Assembly. An interim three member Ministry
was formed with late Shri Pattom A Thanu Pillai as Prime
Minister. The late Shri. C. Kesavan and Shri T.M. Varghese
were the other two members of this first popular ministry
in Travancore. As a result of the internecine fueds within
the Congress, a no-confidence motion was carried, and the
Pattom Ministry resigned on October 17, 1948. Then a seven
member Ministry under the leadership of the late Shri T.K.
Narayana Pillai came to power on 22nd October,
movement for a United Kerala gathered momentum. Following
the national policy of integration, the States of Travancore
and Cochin were merged
into Travancore-Cochin state under the Raja of Travancore
as the Raj Pramukh on
1st July 1949. A seven member cabinet was sworn
in under the stewardship of
Shri T.K. Narayana Pillai on that day, the first ministry
of the erstwhile T.C. State. Consequent on political troubles
within the party the T.K. ministry had to resign
on February 24, 1951. Though the late Shri C. Kesavan formed
a three member ministry all of a sudden, he tendered resignation
of the leadership on 20th March
and was unanimously re-elected as leader. The ministry was
expanded on September 6 by inducting four more members.
General Election in the Republic
became a Sovereign Democratic Republic on January 26, 1950.
Before the 1951-52 general elections, the Socialist Party
was formed under the leadership of Shri Pattam Thanu Pillai,
and the Democratic Congress Party came
into being with the late Shri Mannath Padmanabhan and Shri.
R. Sankar as its leaders.
first general election was held from December 10, 1951 to
January 5, 1952 in the erstwhile Travancore-Cochin State.
Out of the 108 seats, Congress got
44 seats (three uncontested), Socialist 11 (One uncontested),
Communist 25, R.S.P. 6, Travancore Tamilnadu Congress 8,
K.S.P. and Cochin party one each and Independents 12. (The
Communist party was then banned in T.C.) On 12th
March 1952 a six member ministry was sworn-in with Shri
A.J. John as Chief Minister. Later a representative of the
T.T.N.C. was also inducted into the cabinet following the
alliance made with that party by the Congress. As a result
of the disagreement between the Congress and T.T.N.C. which
demanded a separate Congress organization for Tamils, a
confidence motion tabled by the ruling party on September
23, 1953 fell through. The Assembly was dissolved and the
as care-taker Government till the next elections.
second election to the T.C. Assembly was held in February
1954. Following delimitation, the number of seats rose to
118. When the results were announced the party position
was as follows: INC-45, T.T.N.C-12, P.S.P.-19, Communist-23,
R.S.P.-9, K.S.P.-3, Independents-6 and an Anglo-Indian member.
Though there was an electoral understanding between the
Congress and the P.S.P. the latter refused to support the
Congress in forming a ministry. Though unsuccessful, this
was the first electoral alliance in India. In order to avert
political uncertainty, the Congress extended support to
the P.S.P. to form a cabinet. Thus a four-member cabinet
of the P.S.P under its leader Shri Pattam Thanu Pillai came
to power. When the Congress withdrew its support to the
P.S.P. ministry, it had to resign. In the meantime, two
P.S.P. legislators had joined the Congress. Thus with the
of the T.T.N.C., Shri Panampilli Govinda Menon formed a
five member cabinet-the fifth ministry in the T.C. State.
That ministry also could not complete its term, and
the State came under President’s rule for the first time.
Shri P.S. Rao was appointed Advisor to the Rajapramukh.
of states on linguistic lines took place on the recomm-endations
of the States’ Reorganisation Commission. Thus the long-cherished
dream of the Malayalees for a United Kerala came true on
November 1, 1956. The entire Malabar District of Madras
and the Kasargod Taluk of South Canara District were added
to Kerala and the Tamil-speaking southern region of old
Tranvancore State was annexed to the Madras State. The rule
of Rajapramukh was ended and
Shri P.S. Rao was appointed Acting Governor of Kerala. On
November 22, 1956
Dr. B. Ramakrishna Rao assumed the gubernatorial office
first elections to the Kerala Assembly were held from February
28 to March 11, 1957. Out of the total 126 seats, 11 seats
were reserved for scheduled castes and one for scheduled
tribes. The number of constituencies was 114, of which twelve
were two-member ones. The electors numbered 7,514,626 and
the total number of valid votes polled as 5,837,577. The
Communist Party of India emerged
as the largest single party in the Assembly with 60 seats.
It was for the first time in
the history of the world that the Communist party came to
power through ballot. Five of the Independent candidates
returned to the House had the support of the Communist Party
in the elections and they, therefore, joined the communist
Legislature party. The first popular ministry of Kerala
headed by Shri E.M.S. Namboodiripad, leader of the Communist
Party, was sworn in on 5th April 1957. This Government
did not last long. An agitation known as ‘liberation struggle’
was launched by the Congress-led opposition and the president
issued on 31st July 1959
a proclamation under article 356 of the Constitution dissolving
the Assembly and introducing President’s rule in the State.
were held on 1st February 1960, for the first
time, the polling throughout the state was held on a single
was an electoral alliance between the Congress, the P.S.P.
and the Muslim League. They fielded 125 candidates and supported
an independent sponsored by the Congress. The communist
Party fielded 108 party candidates
and supported 16 Independents. There were 102 single-member
and 12 double member constituencies. In 63 single-member
constituencies and seven two-member constituencies and seven
two-member constituencies there were straight fights
with only two candidates for each seat, though other parties
such as the B.J.S.,
the R.S.P. and the Socialist (Lohia) party also were in
the fray. Of the 8,038,268 electors (votes: 9,601.601),
the valid votes numbered 8,104,077. The results of the elections
were as follows: Congress-63, PSP-20, Muslim League-11,
CPI-29 and Independents-3 (including one for R.S.P. and
one for United Karnataka Samithi).
Shri Pattam A Thanu Pillai of the P.S.P. took over on February,
22 as the coalition Chief Minister leading a council of
eleven ministers. Shri. R. Sankar of the Congress was designated
as Deputy Chief Minister. The late Shri. Seethi Shib of
Muslim League was elected Speaker, and following his demise
Shri. C.H. Mohammed Koya assumed that office. Gradually
differences of opinion arose between the Congress
and the Muslim League and the latter decided on November
9, 1961 to quit, the coalition. The next day Speaker Shri.
C.H. Mohammed Koya tendered his resignation. Shri. Alexander
Parambithara was elected Speaker and the Congress-PSP coalition
ministry continued in power. Shri. Pattam A Thanu Pillai
relinquished the reins of
power on September 25, 1962, consequent on his appointment
as Governor of
the Punjab. Shri. R. Sankar took over as Chief Minister
the next day. On October 10, 1962 the two remaining P.S.P.
Ministers bowed out from the Ministry . Shri Sankar continued
as Chief Minister for about two years. Following some differences
of opinion with the Chief Minister, the Home Minister Shri.
P.T. Chacko resigned
on 16th February 1964. A political crisis was
precipitated in September 1964
which resulted in the formation of a dissident group in
the Congress Legislature Party. This group consisting of
15 MLAs lent support to a no-confidence motion moved
by the P.S.P. leader Shri P.K. Kunju against the Sankar
ministry on September 8. The motion was carried and the
legislature dissolved leading to President’s rule for the
third time in the state. And the dissidents formed a new
party, Kerala Congress.
Elections of 1965
were next held on 4th March 1965. The system
of single and
double member constituencies had been given up in 1962.
A fresh delimitation of
the constituencies increased their number to 133. The INC.
alone fought the elections in all seats without any alliance.
In the meantime the Communist party had been
split into two, viz. the CPI and the CPI (M). The CPI had
with the S.S.P. and the Muslim League. The CPI. was in alliance
with the R.S.P. which had an understanding with the Kerala
Congress. The INC won 36 seats, the CPM-40, the S. S. P.-13,
the ML-6, the CPI-3, the Kerala Congress-23 and Independents
12. As the final post-election picture emerged, no single
could form a ministry commanding majority. Thus the 1965
elections became abortive. Once again on March 25 President’s
rule was invoked for the fourth time.
next went to the polls two years later along with the March
1967 General elections. A new polarization of political
forces had taken place leading
to new electoral alliances. Politically the most potent
factor was the new United
Front of the CPI (M), the CPI, the ML, the RSP the Samyuktha
the karshaka Thozhilali Party and the Kerala Socialist party.
Then the INC faced
the elections single-handedly. The Kerala Congress was reported
to have had electoral understanding with the Swatantra Party
and the DMK. The Seven-party CPI (M)
led United Front won a decisive victory at the hustings.
It could win a convicting majority in the Assembly. The
second Namboodiripad ministry was thus formed
on 6th March 1967. The Cabinet consisted of four
members of the CPI (M) two each of the CPI, the ML and the
SSP and one each of the RSP, the KTP and the KSP. This ministry
soon ran into rough weather and Chief Minister Shri Namboodiripad
resigned on October 24 1969.
distinct from the previous ministerial crises, the fall
of the second Namboodiripad ministry left the legislature
intact. A fresh alignment of political forces within the
Assembly led to the formation of an eight-member cabinet
headed by Shri. C. Achutha Menon of the CPI on 1st
November 1969. The ruling alliance consisted of the CPI,
the ISP, the ML, the RSP and the Kerala Congress.
For the first time in the legislative history of the State,
the cabinet was led by a personality who was not a sitting
member of the Assembly, but a member of the Rajya Sabha.
In a by-election held on April 21, 1970 Shri. Menon was
the Assembly from Kottarakkara. In the meantime a split
occurred in the ISP
and three members of the party joined the PSP. In order
to avert a political crisis
Shri. C. Achutha Menon recommended the dissolution of the
Assembly on June 26. He tendered the resignation of the
Cabinet on August 1, 1970. The State was forthwith placed
under President’s rule for the fifth time.
Elections in 1970
were next held on 17th September 1970. The allies
of the ruling
front now included the INC, the CPI, the RSP, the ML and
the PSP. It secured 79 seats. Shri C. Achutha Menon formed
his second ministry on October 4, 1970.
The INC and the KC which were allied of the ruling combine
did not join the ministry at first, but extended support
from without. The Cabinet was expanded on two occasions,
when the INC joined it is September 1971, and to induct
the nominees of the Kerala Congress in December 1975. The
fourth Kerala Legislative Assembly
had the distinction of being the first Assembly in the State
to complete its normal Constitutional term. Moreover, the
normal term of the Assembly which expired
on October 21, 1975 was extended on three occasions over
six month periods during the Emergency.
fresh delimitation of Assembly Constituencies was effected
in 1974. As a result, on the eve of March 1977 elections,
Kerala had, as at present, 140 Assembly seats. The electorate
had gone up to 11,460,901 as against 10,169,467 in 1970.
Female voters slightly outnumbered their male counter-parts.
As in the previous election the main contestants were the
ruling front and the opposition front. The former represented
an alliance of five recognized political parties viz., the
Congress, the CPI, the ML, the RSP, the KC and the unrecognized
political party of P.S.P.
This combine was supported by the National Democratic Party
(NDP), a newly-formed political projection of the Nair Service
Society. The ruling front fielded
130 candidates of recognized political parties such as the
CPM, the BLD (Janata),
the ML (Opposition) and the Kerala Congress (Pillai group).
(Splits occurred in
the ML and the KC before1977 elections). The unrecognized
political parties in
the front were: the Congress Radical, the KSP and the National
R.S.P. It was the general election after the withdrawal
of Emergency imposed on June 26, 1975. Despite the polarization,
straight fights were confined to only 33 constituencies.
Elections were held on 19th March 1977. The total
number of valid votes was 8,773,646. The ruling front secured
111 seats as detailed below:
CPI-23, KC-20, ML-13, RSP-9, NDP-5, and PSP-3. The Opposition
got only 29 seats as follows: CPM-17, BLD-6, ML(O)-3, KC
(PG) 2 and Independent-one.
two-member ministry was formed with Shri K. Karunakaran
as Chief Minister on March 25, 1977. All the remaining thirteen
sworn in on April 11, 1977. However, Shri. Karunakaran had
to resign on April 25, 1977, following certain references
by the Kerala High Court in what came to be known as the
Rajan case. Then under the leadership of Shri. A.K. Antony
not then an M.L.A., a 15 member ministry assumed office
on April 27, 1977.
Shri. Antony was later elected from Kazhakuttom in a bye-election
held on October 22, 1977. Shri. Antony himself resigned
on October 27, 1978 in protest against the stand taken by
the Congress on the Chikkamagalur bye-election in which
Smt. Indira Gandhi was the candidate of the party. Shri.
P.K. Vasudevan Nair of the CPI became the Chief Minister
when the next ministry was sworn in on October 29, 1978,
but his ministry also resigned on October 7, 1979 in order
to create an atmosphere conducive to the formation of a
Left Democratic Front in Kerala. Shri. C.H. Mohammed Koya
of Muslim League assumed office on October 12, 1979, but
the four-member ministry was forced to resign on December
1, 1979. The Assembly was dissolved and President’s rule
was invoked in Kerala for the sixth time and it continued
24th January 1980.
Polls - 1980
Congress had in the meantime split into two – the INC (1)
INC (U). The Kerala Congress also followed suit, the splinter
groups being the
KC (M) and the KC (J). The ML (O) assumed the name AIML.
When the January 1980 polls were looming large on the horizon,
political alignments in the State
had undergone a sea-change involving a drastic regrouping
of major political
parties. The stage was set for the eventual emergence of
two political combines – the United Democratic Front (UDF)
consisting of the INC (I), the IUML, the KC (J),
the PSP, the NDP and the Socialist Republican Party (SRP
– a new political organization of the SNDP), and the Left
Democratic Front comprising, the CPM,
the CPI, the INC (U), the KC (M), the KC (PG), the AIML
and the RSP. The UDF had worked out seat adjustments with
the Janatha Party in a number of constituencies, though
they were locked in battle in some others.
total electorate in 1980 was 13,266,064. The elections were
3rd and 6th January. There were 9,286,699
valid votes. The results of the elections were announced
on 22-1-1980. The LDF won 93 seats and 4,832,481 votes.
party position was as follows: CPM-35, INC (U)-21 (plus
one nominated member), CPI-17, KC (M)-8, KC (PG)-1 [later
joined the KC (M)], RSP-6 and AIML-5.
The UDF secured 46 seats and 4,426,669 votes. The front
consisted of INC (I)-17, IUML-14, KC (J)-6, Janata-5, NDP-3
and PSP-one. The lone Independent candidate supported the
LDF while it was in power. Shri. E.K. Nayanar of CPM, headed
a 17 member ministry which was sworn in on 25th
January 1980, revoking President’s rule.
the thumping majority for the LDF in the Assembly difference
of opinion among the ruling partners culminated in the withdrawal
of support, of
16th October 1981, to the ministry by the Congress
(U). The ministry had then the majority of one member excluding
the Speaker. And the ministry resigned on 20th
October 1981, When the 8 member KC (M) withdrew its support
to the Government. The Chief Minister tendered resignation
and the next day the President took over
the administration for the seventh time, placing the sixth
Kerala Assembly in suspended animation.
a political realignment took place. The Congress (S) and
the KC (M) joined the UDF. An eight-member UDF Ministry
was sworn in on December 28, 1981 with Shri. K. Karunakaran
of Congress (I) as Chief Minister. It was the twelth ministry
in Kerala since the formation of the State on November 1,
1956. Troubles began to raise again. The Congress (S) split
into two factions, 16 members joining
the Antony group [Congress (A)] and six remaining as members
of the Chacko
group. Later a split occurred in the Janata part also. Three
members of the five-member party lent support to the ministry.
Thus the Government had then the lead
of a single member who was the Speaker. On 15th
March 1982 Shri Lonappan Nambadan of KC (M) withdrew his
support to the ministry and consequently the Karunakaran
ministry resigned on March 17. The Assembly was dissolved
on the advice of the outgoing Chief Minister and again the
State fell under president’s
rule for the eighth time.
political alliances had undergone a further change when
the Congress (A), the KC (M) and the Janata (G) jointed
the UDF. The two political fronts emerged in the 1982 electoral
arena were the UDF and the LDF. The UDF included seven parties
viz., the INC (I), the IUML, the KC (M) the KC (J), the
NDP, the SRP, the Janata (G), the RSP (S) and the NRSP.
The DLP also declared support to the Front. The LDF comprised
the CPM, the CPI, the Congress (S), the AIML, the RSP, the
KC (S) – a party formed by Shri Lonappan Nambadan, the DSP
and the Lok Dal. The Janata party had seat adjustments with
the LDF. The number of political parties in Kerala now rose
to 25 as against five in 1957.
19th May 1982 the electorate of Kerala marched
to the polling booth to elect their representatives to the
Kerala Assembly for the eighth time. The size of the electorate
came down to 13,117,012 from 13,266,064 in 1980. Besides
the 280 candidates put up by the two major fronts, the BJP
fielded 68 candidates. Out of the 9,640,774 votes polled,
9,573,590 were valid.
results of the elections were announced on May 20. The UDF
won 77 seats, but its effective strength was 76, as Shri
Karunakaran was elected from
two constituencies. The UDF secured 4,617,498 votes which
formed 48.25 per cent
of the valid votes. The INC (I) won 20 seats out of 35,
the Congress (A) 15 out of 28, the ICUML 14 out of 18, the
KG (M) 6 out of 17, the KC (J) 8 out of 12, the Janata (G)
4 out of 8, the NDP 4 out of 8, the SRP 2 out of 6, the
RSP (S) one out of 4, and the DLP, the PSP and the Independent
one each out of one each. The LDF won 63 seats obtaining
4,523,228 votes which constituted 47.24 per cent of the
total valid votes. The CPM got 26 seats out of 51, the CPI
13 out of 25m the congress (S) 7 out of 18, the AIML 4 out
of 12, the Janata 4 out of 12, the RSP 4 out of 8, the KC
(S) and DSP one each and the Independents three out of 11.
Out of the eleven Independent candidates of the LDF, nine
were fielded by the CPM, one by the
CPI and the remaining one with the combined support of the
LDF partners. None of the BJP candidates were returned.
They had secured 262,847 votes which formed 2.75 per cent
of the valid votes.
UDF ministry with Shri K. Karunakaran as its leader, assumed
office on March 24, 1982. Out of the 19 Ministers, four
belonged to the congress (I),
three each from the INC (A) and the IUML, two each from
the KC (M) and the KC (J) and one each from the SRP, the
NDP, the PSP, the Janata and the RSP (S).
merger of the INC (I) and the INC (A) and of two factions
of the Muslim League were the most important events during
the regime of the UDF ministry. A faction of the IC (S)
joined the INC. Though the merger of the two factions of
the Kerala Congress took place, a split again occurred before
the time of filing nominations to the 1987 elections. There
were splits in the NDP, SRP and the PSP. In spite of those
crises, this was the second ministry in Kerala which could
complete the full term of office.
ninth elections to the eighth Kerala Assembly were held
on 23rd March, 1987. The UDF and the LDF were,
as usual, the two major political fronts. The
UDF included the INC (I) the IUML, the KC (J), the KC (M),
the NDP (P), the SRP (S) and the RSP (S). The LDF comprised
the CPI (M) the CPI, the RSP, the IC (S), the Janata and
the Lok Dal. And the third front consists of the BJP and
the Hindu Munnani. The NDP(P), the SRP (V), the ILP, the
AIFB, the SUCI, the CMP, the Socialist, the KSP and some
non-political organizations had also fielded their candidates.
A record number (764) of independent candidates was also
in the fray.
of the 140 elective seats in the Assembly, 13 were reserved
for the SC
and one for the ST. The electorate had increased from 13,117,012
in 1982 to 15,948,137 in 1987. Female voters outnumbered
the elections in all the 140 constituencies were announced
the elections to two seats Vamanapuram and Kottayam – were
countermanded following the demise of two independent candidates.
While the election to the 138 constituencies were held on
23rd March, the polling took place in the other
two constituencies on 2nd June 1987. There were
1253 candidates at the hustings. The female candidates numbered
35 as against 15 in 1982.
party-wise allocation of seats by the LDF was as follows:
CPM Independents-nine; CPI-25; CPI Independent-one, IC(S)-14;
Janata-12; Lok Dal-2; RSP-7. The political alignment pattern
of the UDF was:-
INC-76; ML-23; KC(J)-13, KC(M)-10; NDP(P)-9; SRP(S)-4; RSP(S)-one
and Independent-two. The Kerala Congress (J) and the Muslim
League had given the Taliparamba and Azhikode seats respectively
to the CMP with which they had electoral understanding.
Thus the UDF had actually contested only 138 seats. The
BJP-HM Front fielded 127 candidates. Some of the Hindu Munnani
candidates contested under the approved symbol of the BJP.
The CMP fielded 84 candidates. And in the fray were 764
the 15,948,137 voters, 12,864,620 persons exercised their
which constitute 80.55 per cent of the total electorate.
Invalid votes numbered 91,945. Thus the total number of
valid votes came to 12,754,675 as against 9,573,590 in 1982.
result of the elections to 138 seats were announced on March
24, 1987. The results of the other two seats, where elections
were held on June 2, 1987, were announced on 3rd
June. The LDF secured 78 seats ensuring a decisive majority
the House. The LDF secured 5,735,402 votes which form 44.97
per cent of the total valid votes. In 1982 they had got
4,523,288 votes, which constituted 47.24 per cent
of the total valid votes. In the 1987 elections the CPM
won 38 seats out of 70, the CPM Independents four out of
nine, the CPI 16 out of 25 the CPI independent one
out of one, the IC(S) six out of fourteen, the Janata seven
out of twelve, the RSP five out of seven, and the Lok Dal
one out of two. The number of votes secured by the LDF partners
and its percentage are as follows:-
(22.84); CPM Ind.-366,446 (2.87); CPI-1,029,409 (8.07);
CPI Ind.-43,970 (0.34), IC (S)-511,777 (4.01); Janata –
482,408 (3.78); RSP-310,004 (2.43); Lok Dal-78,389 (0.61).
the 1987 elections the UDF secured 5,567,309 votes by contesting
in 138 constituencies. (Two constituents of the UDF had
given one seat each to the CMP).
It formed 43.65 per cent of the total valid votes. The INC
got 33 seats out of 76, the IUML 15 out of 23, the KC (J)
five out of 13, the KC (M) four out of 10, the NDP (P) one
out of nine, the SRP (S) nil out of four, the RSP (S) nil
out of one and the independents two out of two. The number
of votes secured by the UDF constituents and percentage
are as follows:- INC 3,164,259 (24.81); IUML 985,011 (7.72);
KC (J) 450,472 (3.53); KC (M) 425,348 (3.33); NDP (P) 823,851
(2.23); SRP (S) 154,450 (1.21); RSP (S) 29,895 (0.23) and
independents 74,023 (0.58). The UDF
had secured an aggregate of 46,17,498 votes in 1982 which
formed 48.23 per cent of the total valid votes.
difference between the votes secured by the LDF and the
UDF is 168,093.
BJP-HM Front had fielded 127 candidates but, it could not
a single seat. It secured 825,607 votes which constituted
6.47 per cent of the total valid votes. The 84 candidates
of the CMP bagged 141,360 votes in all which formed 1.11
per cent of the total valid votes.
independent candidate was returned by the Ettumannoor constituency
where he could secure 41,098 votes. The other 764 independents
bagged 443,899 votes which formed 3.48 per cent of the total
35 women candidates were in the fray, only eight were returned
the Assembly. Of the eight women members six are new faces.
Trivandrum and Quilon districts the UDF could bag only one
each whereas in some Malabar districts like Palghat, it
could win more seats. The UDF could improve its position
in that area by getting elected to the Assembly 32 members
from districts north of Trichur which have 53 constituencies.
The LDF found its contingent from this section reduced to
21. The BJP-HM combine which fielded candidates in 127 constituencies
could secure deposits in six places only. Their candidates
finished second in three constituencies pushing out two
LDF candidates in Manjeswar and Kasaragod and one UDF candidate
East. Only five Independents were able to get back their
deposits. Out of the 84 candidates of the newly formed CMP
only two could secure their deposits. All
the thirteen candidates of the break-away NDP (G) and the
seven nominees of the SRP (C) forfeited their deposits.
Manjeswar is the only constituency where no candidate had
to forfeit the deposits.
SRP (S), the UDF ally, was wiped out in this election. The
INC strength was reduced from 38 to 33, the IUML from 18
to 15, the Kerala Congress groups from 16 to nine and the
NDP from four to one. The SRP, which drew a blank, had three
members and the RSP (S) which had the same fate at the hustings
had one member in the dissolved Assembly. The CPM which
had only 26 members improved its position to 42 including
four Independents of the party. CPI’s tally rose from
12 to 17, the Janata’s from four to seven and the RSP’s
from four to five. The Congress (S) maintained its position
at six. The CMP which had four members
could get only one seat.
five member ministry with Sri. E.K. Nayanar as the Chief
was sworn in on 26th march 1987. The remaining
14 members of the cabinet
assumed office on April 2, 1987. The first session of the
House was held on 28th march, with Smt. Bhargavi
Thankappan on the chair as Pro-tem Speaker.
Shri. Varkala Radhakrishnan was elected Speaker and Smt.
Bhargavi Thankappan Deputy Speaker. Shri M.P. Veerendrakumar
of the Janata party resigned his ministership on 4th
April 1987 in order to induct Prof. N.M. Joseph, as the
of the Janata Party in the Cabinet, who assumed office on
14th April, 1987.
Shri. T.K. Ramakrishnan was not a member of the House when
he was appointed Minister for Co-operation. Later he was
elected from the Kottayam constituency.
Shri Nicholas Rodrigues was nominated to the Assembly to
represent the Anglo-Indian community.
to the ninth Loksabha were held on 22nd November 1989 in
Kerala. In this election the UDF and the LDF were, as usual
the main contesting fronts. But the Kerala Congress led
by Shri. P.J. Joseph left the UDF and the leader himself
contested the election from the Muvattupuzha constituency
against the official UDF candidate. This started the drift
between UDF and the Kerala Congress. As naturally the LDF
encashed the situation in their favour and the doors were
opened before the KC for an easy entry to the LDF. The allies
of both the fronts remained the same except the inclusion
of CMP to the UDF and the entry of KC as LDF partner. The
elections to the Loksabha and assembly were scheduled to
be held on May 23rd. The nation had suffered a great Tragedy
in the death of Shri. Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister
of the country at the assassins hands on 21st May 1991.
Consequently the election commission of India postponed
the election proceedings to 18th June. Of the 19657974 votes
14433354 exercised their franchise which constitute 73.46
precent of the electorate. The total number of valid votes
came to 14186720.793 candidates were in the fray out of
this 489 deposits forfeited .
won a majority the UDF formed its cabinet with Shri.K. Karunakaran
as the Chief Minister on 24-6-1991. Later the Chief Minister
had to leave for United States for medical treatment consequent
on a road accident. A few communal issues flared up during
his absence and there was a hue and cry for a change of
leadership. Although Shri. Karunakaran retuned to the leadership,
the clamour for change reached its crescendo with the ISRO
spy scandal. This resulted in Shri. Karunakaran making an
exit and Shri. A.K.Antony was sworn in as Chief Minister
on 22-3-1995. Prohibition was the major political plank
proposed by Shri. A.K. Antony. This was also made main
issue for the next general elections held on 27-4-1996.
General Election 1996
in the internal political scenario of the Kerala Congress
surfaced in the last phase of the UDF ministry, Shri. T.M.
Jaocb parted with the KC (M) and contested the next elections
separately within the UDF. SRP and NDP disappeared as political
entities, with the 1996 general elections. L.D.F. formed
its ministry on 20-5-1996 under the leadership of Shri.
E.K. Nayanar who was not an elected member of the assembly at that time. Later he was elected from Thalassery
Constituency. As a measure of strengthening the process
of decentralisation of power the number of ministers was
reduced and a 14 member cabinet was sworn in.
Election to the 11th assembly was held on May 10 ,2001 in
which UDF got 99 seats and the 11th Kerala Assembly was
sworn in to power on the 17th of May 2001 with Shri.A.K.Antony
as Chief Minister. The cabinet comprised of 20 ministers.
Mr. Vakkom Purushothaman was elected as speaker. Shri. Sundaran
Nadar sworn in as Deputy Speaker. Sri.A.K.Antony rendered
the resignation of his cabinet on August 29,2004. A five-member
ministry under the Chief Ministership of Sri. Oommen Chandy
assumed charge of office on August 31, 2004.